Factors affecting Basic Reproduction Number

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In calculating R0 factors which are taken into account are as follows:

A small change in each of the factors above could affect R0 significantly. 

It is difficult to estimate one uniform number, because different infected people will have different rate of contact within the same population. Moreover, we all react differently to virus exposure and some people are more susceptible to catch it than others, hence the probability of infection is difficult to estimate for novel diseases.