Start with a broad definition of your Problem Statement (based on which you were originally selecting audience to interview). Perhaps it would be useful coming back to the cause that you want to advance or support. Remember that the analysis of the Empathy Map will be done with regards to this specific statement.
Write down as a working version your broad problem statement (e.g. Reducing Poverty/ Eliminating inequalities in education, etc.). Looking back at the empathy map, get into the analysis stage of your problem statement. Based on the observations from the interview, how could the problem be seen from the target group perspective? What is the major problem to which you could trace the origin/cause of the inconvenience that your product or service could solve?
Get to the root cause of the problem by asking WHY question 5 (or more) times. Instead of curing the symptoms, hit the “disease” directly. Once you know what the problem is – by asking 5 WHYs you can get to the point which causes it in the first place.
And here you go! Instead of suppling the area with vaccines and medicine, more efficient way would be to improve sanitation – longer term solution which benefits babies and adults alike.
Once you understand what the root cause on a higher level is, it’s time to break it down into constituent components. What are the elements that contribute to the problem statement? As in the example above you understand that the root cause of child mortality is poor sanitation, the idea would be to find out what components make this problem persistant.
Try to come up with 3-5 single contributing factors. For example:
These are just some of the examples for this specific problem. Of course, your findings will depend on the depth of the problem analysis and data collected directly from your target audience.